By Tafadzwa Muranganwa
HARARE-A research project by a Zimbabwean digital rights expert Koliwe Majama has revealed that violations and stigma on sexual minorities are rife online as they are offline despite the internet being an enabler of social inclusion.
Majama on Monday launched her research findings under the title ‘The pitfalls of internet as a development tool , a study of the politics of internet use by gender and sexual minorities in Zimbabwe’ which establishes that these communities are increasingly accessing the internet actively mainly on WhatsApp and Facebook but there is still a backlash from the society online.
The research says the sexual minority groups bemoan the physical and emotional violence they endure and lists hate speech and bullying as the most online violation against commercial sex workers and the LGBTIQs (Lesbians Gays Bisexuals Transgender Intersex and Queers).
“Offline they said they were exposed to physical and emotional violence, harassment, hate speech and shaming and the top five online violations in order of frequency from the discussions that were undertook are hate speech, cyber-bullying , stalking, hacking and self-censorship,” according to the research.
Majama said because of these, some members of these communities fail to participate on online public discourse for fear of reprimand, insults and labelling.
“Most times, both the sex workers and LGBTQ
said they failed to engage in public discourse because of fear of being
shamed,” she said.
Galz Communication and advocacy officer Tash Dowell whose
organisation together with Katswe Sistahood collaborated with Majama in the research says most of their members are no longer on Facebook
while some have resorted to using pseudonyms.
“We have a number of our members who are no
longer using Facebook because of the vitriol spewed them while others have decided to open
accounts using pseudonyms ,”revealed Dowell who is also a digital security
However, the internet craze has also come
in handy is some instances to these vulnerable communities.
A revelation in the research shows that mobile money transfer has cushioned the commercial sex workers from non-payment by men who would have solicited their services.
“Mobile money transfer services provide a
shield against clients who refuse to pay
as the fee is demanded upfront and in other instances a deposit before
any meeting or arrangement is made,
”states the 28-page report.
Most members of these sexual minority
groups can’t freely access public health services owing to stigma and
discrimination but the coming in of the internet has eased their woes.
“Both groups shared experiences of the
difficulty of accessing services at public health facilities and they cited a
Facebook page which they say is now their resort to get health tips and
information on sexually transmitted infections (STIs),”the research cites.
Among her recommendations Majama says there is the need for strengthening of existing laws to decriminalize sex work and homosexuality to realise online rights
“Participants stated that the existence of
laws and policy that criminalised sex work and a lack of clarity in national
policy on the status of the LGBTQ community affected respect of the groups’
freedoms online and recommended the
broadening of sections of Zimbabwe’s draft Cybercrimes and Cyber-security Bill
on discrimination online, hate speech, bullying and privacy breach to classify
marginal and vulnerable groups.
There were also recommendations on the inclusion of specific clauses on anti-discrimination online on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity,” .
Koliwe Majama’s research which was supported by Counterpart International is available at https://koliwemajama.co.zw/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Pitfalls-As-A-Development-Tool.pdf.