The US District Court in Virginia said it wanted information including user names, addresses, connection records, telephone numbers and payment details.
Those named include Wikileaks founder Julian Assange and an Icelandic MP.The US says it is seeking to prosecute Mr Assange over the leaking of 250,000 classified US documents to Wikileaks.
Reports indicate the Department of Justice may be seeking to indict him on charges of conspiring to steal documents with Private First Class Bradley Manning, a US Army intelligence analyst.
Mr Manning is facing a court martial and up to 52 years in prison for allegedly sending Wikileaks diplomatic cables, as well military logs about incidents in Afghanistan and Iraq and a classified military video.
According to the court order issued on 14 December by the District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, the US Attorney’s Office has provided evidence to show that the information held by Twitter is “relevant and material to an ongoing criminal investigation”.
The San Francisco-based website was also told not to disclose that it had been served the subpoena, or the existence of the investigation.
Do they realise I am a member of parliament in Iceland?”
However, the same court removed those restrictions on Wednesday and authorised Twitter to disclose the order to its customers.
A Twitter representative told CNet: “To help users protect their rights, it’s our policy to notify users about law enforcement and governmental requests for their information, unless we are prevented by law from doing so.”
On Friday, the Icelandic MP named in the court order told reporters that her personal details had been subpoenaed by US officials.Birgitta Jonsdottir, who once worked with Wikileaks, said the US Department of Justice had also asked Twitter for all of her tweets since November 2009.
Ms Jonsdottir wrote on her Twitter feed: “USA government wants to know about all my tweets and more since 1 November 2009. Do they realise I am a member of parliament in Iceland?”
She said that she would call Iceland’s justice minister to discuss the request.
“I think I am being given a message, almost like someone breathing in a phone,” she said.
Ms Jonsdottir has said she helped to produce a video for Wikileaks showing a US Apache helicopter shooting civilians in Iraq in 2007.The classified video, released by Wikileaks last April, brought the whistle-blowing website to the world’s attention.
The website’s founder, Julian Assange, is currently fighting extradition from the UK to Sweden, where he is wanted for questioning as part of an inquiry into alleged sex offences.
Ms Jonsdottir reportedly left Wikileaks late last year after she argued unsuccessfully that Mr Assange should take a low-profile role until his legal troubles were resolved.