The study by researcher and historian, Anusa Daimon, noted that women were discriminated at Rufaro and Barbourfield, resulting in low female turnouts at soccer pitches. The study interviewed women and monitored behaviour of several Bosso and Dynamos fans. The research also revealed that Highlanders and Dynamos fans were the most violent.
“Zimbabwean stadia have become arenas for the display of machismo. Consequently, most Zimbabwean women prefer not to attend these stadia because they perceive these structures as very endocentric. There are particular seating areas or grand stands where the most volatile and vocal males are found during matches.
“For example, in Harare’s Rufaro Stadium, which is the home of Dynamos FC, Zimbabwe’s most popular team there is an area popularly known as the ‘Vietnam’ stand. The name ‘Vietnam’ is a metaphor for the brutality of the Vietnam War of the 1960s. So this section of Rufaro Stadium represents a war zone, solely preserved for Dynamos fans. “Paradoxically, the name ‘Rufaro’ denotes happiness or joy. Most hooligans who include rogues and criminals are found in this area,” the study noted.